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Conversions & Equivalencies
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Babette
Site Admin


Joined: 28 Sep 2006
Posts: 6260
Location: Los Angeles

PostPosted: Tue Mar 27, 2007 9:00 pm    Post subject: Conversions & Equivalencies Reply with quote

U.S. Weights and Measures
1 pinch = less than 1/8 teaspoon (dry)
1 dash = 3 drops to 1/4 teaspoon (liquid)
3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon = 1/2 ounce (liquid and dry)
2 tablespoons = 1 ounce (liquid and dry)
4 tablespoons = 2 ounces (liquid and dry) = 1/4 cup
5 1/3 tablespoons = 1/3 cup
16 tablespoons = 8 ounces = 1 cup = 1/2 pound
16 tablespoons = 48 teaspoons
32 tablespoons = 16 ounces = 2 cups = 1 pound
64 tablespoons = 32 ounces = 1 quart = 2 pounds
1 cup = 8 ounces (liquid) = 1/2 pint
2 cups = 16 ounces (liquid) = 1 pint
4 cups = 32 ounces (liquid) = 2 pints = 1 quart
16 cups = 128 ounces (liquid) = 4 quarts = 1 gallon
1 quart = 2 pints (dry)
8 quarts = 1 peck (dry)
4 pecks = 1 bushel (dry)


Approximate Equivalents
1 quart (liquid) = about 1 liter
8 tablespoons = 4 ounces = 1/2 cup = 1 stick butter
1 cup all-purpose pre-sifted flour = 5 ounces
1 cup stoneground yellow cornmeal = 4 1/2 ounces
1 cup granulated sugar = 8 ounces
1 cup brown sugar = 6 ounces
1 cup confectioners' sugar = 4 1/2 ounces
1 large egg = 2 ounces = 1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
1 egg yolk = 1 tablespoon + 1 teaspoon
1 egg white = 2 tablespoons + 2 teaspoons




Temperatures: Fahrenheit (F) = Celsius (C)

-10F = -23.3C (freezer storage)
0F = -17.7C
32F = 0C (water freezes)
50F = 10C
68F = 20C (room temperature)
100F = 37.7C
150F = 65.5C
205F = 96.1C (water simmers)
212F = 100C (water boils)
300F = 148.8C
325F = 162.8C
350F = 177C (baking)
375F = 190.5C
400F = 204.4C (hot oven)
425F = 218.3C
450F = 232C (very hot oven)
475F = 246.1C
500F = 260C (broiling)


Conversion Factors

If you need to convert measurements into their equivalents in another system, here's how to do it:

ounces to grams:multiply ounce figure by 28.3 to get number of grams
grams to ounces: multiply gram figure by .0353 to get number of ounces
pounds to grams: multiply pound figure by 453.59 to get number of grams
pounds to kilograms: multiply pounds by 0.45 to get number of kilograms
ounces to milliliters: multiply ounce figure by 30 to get number of milliliters
cups to liters: multiply cup figure by 0.24 to get number of liters
Fahrenheit to Celsius: subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit figure, multiply by 5, then divide by 9 to get Celsius figure
Celsius to Fahrenheit: multiply Celsius figure by 9, divide by 5, then add 32 to get Fahrenheit figure
inches to centimeters: multiply inches by 2.54 to get number of centimeters
centimeters to inches: multiply centimeter figure by .39 to get number of inches

Cooking Equivalents and Substitutions
Spaghetti: 8 ounces uncooked = 4 cups cooked
Macaroni: 1 cup uncooked = 2 1/2 cups cooked
Rice: 1 cup uncooked = 3 cups cooked
Crumbs: 1 slice bread = 1/2 cup crumbs
Popcorn: 1/4 cup unpopped = 5 cups popped
Cheese: 4 ounces = 1 cup shredded
Herbs: 1 teaspoon dried = 1 tablespoon fresh
1 square chocolate: 3 tablespoons cocoa + 1 tablespoon butter
1 tablespoon cornstarch: 2 tablespoons flour (for thickening)
1 cup buttermilk: 1 cup yogurt
1 cup milk: 1/2 cup evaporated milk + 1/2 cup water
1 cup sour milk: 1 cup milk + 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar
1 cup cake flour: 1 cup all-purpose less 2 tablespoons
1 teaspoon baking powder: 1/4 teaspoon baking soda + 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1 cup sugar: 1 cup honey (use 1/2 cup less liquid in recipe)
1 cup brown sugar: 1 cup granulated sugar
1 cup oil: 1/2 pound butter
1 tablespoon prepared mustard: 1 teaspoon dry mustard
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ddpie
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Joined: 18 Jul 2007
Posts: 8618

PostPosted: Wed Aug 15, 2007 9:13 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Very nice and helpful Babette! Thank you so much....will make for a nice page in my recipe book! Smile
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Karen From Colorado
Junior Sous Chef


Joined: 17 Aug 2007
Posts: 91
Location: California

PostPosted: Wed Aug 22, 2007 9:31 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Here are a few more tips, substitutions and shortcuts that I have collected over the years.

Lumpy sauce or gravy - Pour gravy or sauce through a strainer and mash out lumps with a wooden spoon. Re-heat very slowly.
Curdled or separated mayonnaise - Into a warmed bowl, put 1 t. mustard, 1 T. curdled mayo. Beat with whisk until creamy. Add mayo slowly until well blended.
Too much fat in gravy - Pour liquid through ice cubes in a bowl. The fat will solidify.
A crack in the middle of cake - The oven was too hot or temp was uneven during baking. Disguise with frosting.
Cake rises too much, overflows pan - Too much baking powder; too little flour; or pan was filled more than two thirds.
Cake rises in oven, caves when cooling - Pan was overfilled or egg whites where beaten when recipe didn't call for it.
Cake has a shiny, sticky streak - Poor mixing; too slow baking, or irregular heating of pan in oven.
Cake is sticky - Too much liquid or too much sugar was used or baking powder was too old.
Weak brewed coffee - Add a little instant to the pot. It will strengthen it without changing the fresh taste.
Bitter tasting brewed coffee - Put a pinch of salt into coffee that was brewed too long.
Weak brewed tea - Add a pinch of baking soda to the teapot.
Too much salt - Add a little vinegar and sugar, then taste. A raw potato helps absorb the salt in soups or stews.
Stewed fruit is turning sour - Add a pinch of baking soda to the fruit and reboil for 5 minutes.
When stewing very sour fruit - Add a pinch of salt while stewing to reduce the amount of sugar needed for sweetening.
Stored coconut is dry and hard - Put coconut in a strainer over a steaming pot of water for a few minutes.
Hands smell of onion and garlic - Rinse hands in cold water, rub with salt or baking powder, rinse again, then wash with soap and water.
Strong onion or cabbage cooking odors - To prevent odors while cooking, set a tin cup of vinegar on stove and let boil.
Sticky rice - Rinse rice throughly with warm water to wash out the excess starch. Grains will separate.
Shell cracks while egg is boiling - Add a few drops of vinegar to the water; use eggs at room temp.
One egg short for a recipe - Substitute 1 teaspoon of cornstarch.
Tough rubbery omelet - Add one scant teaspoon of boiling water per egg to mixture to keep omelet from being tough.
Slightly stale bread - Sprinkle bread with water or milk; wrap in foil, bake at 350 degrees for about 8 minutes. If hard crusted, open foil for 3-5 min. more.
Dry coffee cake - Put 2 tablespoons water or milk in a large skillet; place un-iced cake on tivet and cover. Leave over low heat about 8 minutes. Do not cover iced coffeecake.
To keep sugar soft and moist - Place a slice of bread in the container and cover tightly.
Brown sugar caked and hard - Place in 200F over until the sugar is dry and crumbly; powder it in a blender or use a mortar and pestle.
To keep granulated sugar from lumping - Place a couple of salt crackers in the container and cover tightly.
Too much sugar - Add a few drops of lemon juice or vinegar.
Fish has strong fishy odor - rub fish with lemon juice and salt to prevent odor from being absorbed by other foods.
Dried out leftover cheese - Store dried out cheese (unprocessed) in freezer; frozen it crumbles easily; slice it thin without thawing to use in recipes calling for grated cheese.
Frying fat has strong flavor or odor - After frying strong flavored foods, cool fat and clarify it by adding a raw potato and reheat slowly. Discard potato; strain fat and store.
Frying fat or oil left over - Cool and strain through cheesecloth. Store covered in refrigerator.

Baking Substitutions

1 teaspoon apple pie spice - 1/2 t. cinnamon, 1/4 t. nutmeg, 1/8 t. allspice and a dash of ground cloves or ginger.
1 teaspoon baking powder - 1/2 t. cream of tarter and 1/4 t. baking soda.
1 cup buttermilk - Sour milk by mixing 1 T. lemon juice or vinegar and enough milk to make 1 cup. Let stand 5 minutes before using or 1 cup plain yogurt.
4 oz chocolate, sweet baking - 1/4 cup unsweetened cocoa powder, 1/3 cup sugar and 3 T. shortening.
1 oz chocolate, semisweet - 3 T. semisweet chocolate pieces or 1 oz unsweetened chocolate plus 1 T. sugar.
1 Tablespoon cornstarch for thickening - 2 T. all purpose flour
1 cup Corn syrup - 1 cup sugar and 1/4 cup water.
1 whole egg - 2 egg whites or 2 egg yolks or 1/4 cup refrigerated or frozen egg product, thawed.
1 cup cake flour - 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all purpose flour
1 cup self-rising flour - 1 cup all purpose flour plus 1 t. baking powder, 1/2 t. salt, and 1/4 t. baking soda.
1 tablespoon Fruit liqueur - 1 T. fruit juice.
1 teaspoon grated ginger - 1/4 t. ground ginger.
1 cup half-and-half or light cream - 1 T. melted butter or margarine plus enough whole milk to make 1 cup.
1 cup honey - 1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 water.
8 oz mascarpone cheese - 8 oz regular cream cheese.
1 cup milk - 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 water or 1 cup water plus 1/3 cup dry milk powder.
1 cup Molasses - 1 cup honey
1 teaspoon Pumpkin pie spice - 1/2 t. cinnamon, 1/4 t. ground ginger, 1/4 t. allspice and 1/8 t. nutmeg.
1 cup sour cream - 1 cup plain yogurt
1 cup granulated sugar - 1 cup packed brown sugar.
package dry active yeast - 1 cake compressed yeast.
Teary eyes while chopping onions - Light a candle and place it next to or on your cutting board.
Measuring shortening, lard, peanut butter or butter the easy way - IE 1/2 cup: Fill a glass measuring cup with 1/2 cup of water. Spoon the shortening, lard, peanut butter or butter into the cup until the water level reaches 1 cup. This displacement of the water will give you 1/2 cup of the required ingredient.
Food too hot or spicy Drizzle in a little honey. Stir and taste.

Stock tip

Don't toss out the onion peels, carrot peels, garlic ends, celery ends, parsley, etc when preparing your meals. Add them to a freezer bag, kept in the freezer, as you get them and use them to make stock when you have enough. They are delicious as a vegetable stock or added to chicken or beef parts also kept in a separate freezer bag until there is enough to use. The use of a large crock pot makes almost effortless stocks without the addition of preservatives, sodium and other unhealthy additives. Strain through a fine strainer or through layered cheesecloth to clarify it even more. Be sure to wash your vegetables before peeling. It is difficult to wash peelings. The use of beets or strong tasting herbs like cilantro is not recommended.

Fresh Bacon Bits

Partially freeze your package of bacon so that it holds together easier while slicing. Use a sharp knife and cut the frozen bacon into long strips about 1/4 inch wide. Turn the bacon and cut the strips into pieces also about 1/4 in wide. Fry over a medium high heat until crisp. There is no need to separate the pieces. They separate during cooking. Remove with a slotted spoon and drain on paper towels.
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Babette
Site Admin


Joined: 28 Sep 2006
Posts: 6260
Location: Los Angeles

PostPosted: Wed Aug 22, 2007 10:38 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks so much Secret... much appreciated! Smile
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pattit
Pro BakeSpacer


Joined: 25 Nov 2006
Posts: 6168
Location: Central PA

PostPosted: Wed Aug 22, 2007 11:12 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thank you so much, I have used many of those tips and I see lots more to remember. Eric was wondering about this recently.
Ohhhhh Eric.

Teary eyes while chopping onions - Light a candle and place it next to or on your cutting board.
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ddpie
Elite BakeSpacer


Joined: 18 Jul 2007
Posts: 8618

PostPosted: Tue Sep 25, 2007 5:05 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I found a great conversion calculator online, just type in the amounts and it converts into grams for you or vise versa...

http://www.gourmetsleuth.com/gram_calc.htm

In addition, the site explains that some weights of foods are different and offers a more accurate conversion tool for specific ingredients...

http://www.gourmetsleuth.com/cookingconversions.asp

I posted this info in another thread (sorry for the repeat, but I thought it would be more useful here in a sticky post) Hope that helps!
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Herr Hexenmeister
Capo di tutti Capi


Joined: 22 May 2007
Posts: 846
Location: Portland, Oregon...till February.

PostPosted: Sat Oct 13, 2007 5:56 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I also like this site, they have a section dedicated to cooking conversions.
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Carol
Capo di tutti Capi


Joined: 21 Jan 2008
Posts: 2859
Location: Tampa Fl area

PostPosted: Wed Aug 20, 2008 12:08 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I've been noticing a few more recipes and members from the UK posting and I'm sometimes not sure exactly what they mean when mentioning a specific oven temp or ingredient and thought this might be helpful.

Traditional UK/US Cooking Terms

Measurements (British, metric and US)

1 ounce flour = 25g = quarter cup
4 ounces flour = 125g = One cup
8 ounces flour = 250g = Two cups
2 ounces breadcrumbs (fresh) = 60g = One cup
4 ounces breadcrumbs (dry) = 125g = One cup
4 ounces oatmeal = 125g = One cup (scant)
5 ounces currants = 150g = One cup
4 ounces shredded suet = 125g = One cup (scant)
4 ounces butter and other fats, including cheese = 125g = One stick
8 ounces butter and other fats, including grated cheese = 250g = One cup
7 ounces caster/granulated sugar = 200g = One cup
8 ounces caster/granulated sugar = 250g = One and a quarter cups
8 ounces meat (chopped/minced/ground) = 250g = One cup
8 ounces cooked, mashed potatoes = 250g = One cup
One ounce (1oz) = One rounded tablespoon
One tablespoon of liquid = 3 teaspoons
One teaspoon liquid = 5ml
One British teaspoon is the same as an American teaspoon
One British tablespoon liquid = 17.7ml
One US tablespoon liquid =14.2ml
8 tablespoons = 4 fluid ounces = 125ml = Half cup
8 fluid ounces = 250ml = One cup (Half a US pint)
Half pint/10 fluid ounces = 300ml = One and a quarter cups (scant)
Three quarters of a pint/15 fluid ounces = 450 ml =Two cups (scant) or one US pint
One British pint/20 fluid ounces = 600ml = Two and a half cups
Ingredients

Bacon rashers = Bacon slices
Bannock = Flat round cake
Bicarbonate of soda = Baking soda
Biscuits = Crackers/cookies
Boiling fowl = Stewing fowl
Broad beans = Lima beans
Cake mixture = Cake batter
Castor sugar = Granulated sugar
Celery stick = Celery stalk
Chipolata sausages = Cocktail sausages
Cornflour = Cornstarch
Chips = French fried potatoes
Creamed potatoes = Mashed potatoes
Crisps = Potato chips
Demerara sugar = Light brown sugar
Dessicated coconut = Flaked coconut
Digestive biscuits = Graham crackers
Double cream = Whipping cream
Essence = Extract
Farls = Quarters
Fats = Shortening
Flaked almonds = Slivered almonds
Frosting sugar = Powdered sugar
Glacé = Candied
Golden syrup = Light corn syrup
Hough = Shank of beef
Icing = Frosting
Jam = Preserves
Mince/minced beef = Ground beef
Mixed spices = Allspice
Nut of butter = Pat of butter
Pinhead oatmeal = Irish oatmeal
Rasher = Slice
Ratafia biscuits = Almond flavoured cookies/dried macaroons
Roast Potatoes = Oven browned potatoes
Salt beef = Corned beef brisket
Scone = Shortcake, biscuit
Self raising flour = All-purpose flour with baking powder
Single cream = Light cream
Soft brown sugar = Light brown sugar
Spring onion = Scallion/green onion
Stewing steak = Braising beef
Stoned raisins = Seedless raisins
Strong plain flour = Unbleached white flour
Sultanas = Seedless white raisins
Treacle = Molasses
Unsalted butter = Sweet butter
Wholemeal = Wholewheat
Utensils and Methods

Ashet = Meat dish
Baking sheet or tray = Cookie sheet
Case = pie shell
Fry = Pan Fry (with fat)
Frying pan = Skillet
Girdle = Griddle
Grate = Shred
Greaseproof paper = Vegetable parchment or waxed paper
Grill = Broil
Gut = Clean
Jelly bag = Layers of cheesecloth
Knead = Punch down
Knock Back = Punch down
Large pot = Dutch oven or a deep cooking utensil with a tight fitting lid
Liquidizer = Electric blender
Mince = Grind
Polythene = Plastic wrap
Prove = Rise
Pudding cloth = Cheesecloth
Roasting tin = Roasting pan with rack
Sandwich tins = Round-layer pans
Sieve = Sift
Stewpan or pan = Kettle
Tartlet tin = Muffin pan
Vegetable mill = Food mill
Whisk = Beat/whip
Oven Temperatures

Gas Mark 1 = 275F = 140C
Gas Mark 2 = 300F = 150C
Gas Mark 3 = 325F = 170C
Gas Mark 4 = 355F = 180C
Gas Mark 5 = 375F = 190C
Gas Mark 6 = 400F = 200C
Gas Mark 7 = 425F = 220C
Gas Mark 8 = 455F = 230C
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BREAD AND WATER CAN SO EASILY BECOME TEA AND TOAST.

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Nelly
Capo di tutti Capi


Joined: 04 Mar 2008
Posts: 1945
Location: England

PostPosted: Wed Aug 20, 2008 12:11 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

thanks carol! that helps me too! as now i know what u guys are on about! heheh

where did u find these uk members, ive been looking but cant find anyone!!!!
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"Many people have eaten my cooking & gone on to lead normal lives."

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Carol
Capo di tutti Capi


Joined: 21 Jan 2008
Posts: 2859
Location: Tampa Fl area

PostPosted: Wed Aug 20, 2008 1:03 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Sad Sorry Nelly I guess I didn't word that very well. You're the only Brit that I'm aware of here on Bakespace, but I have seen other international recipes here and other sites that had some things mentioned that I had been wondering about. I had some recipes from Gordon Ramsey, that always mentioned gas marks and now I know how to set the proper oven temp. I remember seeing a recipe that called for stoned raisins, and I wondered...heck do I need to find some weed to make this stuff, and if I do, should I really waste it in a recipe? Wink
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Carol

BREAD AND WATER CAN SO EASILY BECOME TEA AND TOAST.

http://bakespace.com/?kalola
http://www.facebook.com/#!/profile.php?id
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