- Cooking Time:
- Preparation Time:
- Corn flour.......... 7 pounds
- Arrowroot.......... 8 pounds
- Oil of almond....... 20 drops
- Oil of nutmegs....... 10 drops
- Tincture of saffron to color. Mix the tincture with a little of the mixed flours; then add the essential oils and make into a paste; dry this until it can be reduced to a powder, and then mix all the ingredients by sifting several times through a fine hair sieve. Keep in dark dry place in lid tight jars.
- Corn flour
- A powdery flour made of finely ground cornmeal, NOT to be confused with cornstarch. The exception is in British recipes where the term "cornflour" is used synonymously with the U.S. word cornstarch. Corn flour or sometimes called Maze Flour comes in yellow and white and is used for breading and in combination with other flours in baked goods. Corn flour is milled from the whole kernel, while cornstarch is obtained from the endosperm portion of the kernel. Masa Harina is a special corn flour that is the basic ingredient for corn tortillas. White corn flour blends well with other food ingredients and can be blended with wheat flour to reduce gluten for cakes, cookies, pastries and crackers. White corn flour is used as a filler, binder and thickener in cookie, pastry and meat industries.
- Substitutions: cornmeal pulverized in a food processor or rice flour
- Arrowroot is an easily digested starch extracted from the roots of the arrowroot plant. The starch is used as a thickener in many foods such as puddings and sauces, and is also used in cookies and other baked goods. Arrowroot is extremely bland, making it suitable for neutral diets, especially for people who are feeling nauseous. It is not terribly nutritious, but some people believe that it helps to soothe upset stomachs, which is why many health food stores carry arrowroot cookies.In some stores, arrowroot is sold as arrowroot flour. The powder should be fine and white, similar to cornstarch. Some manufacturers adulterate arrowroot with other starches, so consumers should make sure that they are purchasing pure arrowroot, since these other starches may behave differently in the kitchen. arrowroot can be found in the form of a fresh whole root, labeled as Chinese potato or tse goo. The whole root can be processed to extract arrowroot powder, but it can also be used in recipes. The papery layer should be peeled off before the root is boiled or fried, and cooks should remember that it is relatively bland.
- Oil of almond
- The fixed oil, is prepared from either variety of almond and is a glyceryl oleate, with a slight odour and a nutty taste. It is almost insoluble in alcohol but readily soluble in chloroform or ether. It may be used as a substitute for olive oil.
- Oil of nutmegs
- The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg. The oil is colorless or light yellow and smells and tastes of nutmeg. Is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods, syrups (e.g. Coca Cola), beverages, sweets etc. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food.
- Tincture of saffron
- The reddish orange stigmas of a special variety of crocus are the source of saffron. Saffron is costly, selling for as much as $50 an ounce, because approximately 200000 dried stigmas from about 70000 flowers are needed to produce just one pound. Although it has a long history of use in natural medicine, saffron has fallen out of favour as a curative due to its price. It is still popular as a culinary herb, however, because a little goes a long way; just a pinch of saffron lends a distinctive flavour and color to rice dishes, pastries and soups. Indeed, adding saffron to your diet may be well worth the cost. One medical study suggests that the low rate of heart disease in spain is due partly to the liberal use of saffron in Spanish cooking.
- All can be found in Natural Food Markets. Some in the biger food stores like Wal-Mart & Kroger.
NotesThis section is from the "Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas Recipes Processes" encyclopedia, by Norman W. Henley and others.